Osteoporosis ICD-10: Coding and Documentation Best Practices

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Osteoporosis ICD-10 refers to a coding system in the medical field that is used to classify specific diagnoses, symptoms, and medical procedures for Osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis is one of the common musculoskeletal diseases among older adults, but women over the age of 50 are reported to be more at risk of the disease compared to men over 50. In fact, women who have undergone menopause usually feel the onset of Osteoporosis during their post-menopausal stage.

What Do We Mean by ICD-10

ICD-10-CM or known as the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, Clinical Modification is a coding system for certain diseases that helps experts in the medical field in diagnosing diseases and providing procedures for treatment. This coding system is approved and published by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Generally, ICD-10 for Osteoporosis falls under the ICD codes M80 - M82, which includes Disorders in Bone Density and Structure. To give you an overview, here are the general ICD-10 codes for Osteoporosis:

Osteoporosis ICD-10 Table

What is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a musculoskeletal disease that is characterized by weakness of the bones due to loss of bone density.

Bones are made of tissues, and as we age, these tissues replace old bones with new, strong ones. However, if you have Osteoporosis, more bones are being removed than it is replaced, which will then result in loss of bone density.

People with early-stage of Osteoporosis don’t usually feel its symptoms until it worsens. The primary symptom of Osteoporosis includes weakened bones, especially in the hips, wrists, and spine.

Risk Factors

Age is one of the leading risk factors for Osteoporosis. That’s why if you would notice, most seniors aged 60 and above have weaker and more sensitive bones. Other risk factors of Osteoporosis include the following.

  • Heredity - If you have a family member who has Osteoporosis, it’s more likely that you will have the disease as well.
  • History of bone injuries - Adults who have a history of bone fractures or injuries are more likely to have Osteoporosis when they get older.
  • History of Oophorectomy - Oophorectomy is a procedure that involves the removal of ovaries. Women who had undergone this surgery experience early menopause, which is believed to be one of the risk factors of getting Osteoporosis among women.
  • Poor Diet - Some of the nutrients that our body uses for various physiological functions including maintaining bone density come from the food that we eat. Hence, if you have a poor diet, you will most likely get Osteoporosis. Deficiencies like calcium, vitamin D, and protein are the leading factors of Osteoporosis.
  • Physical Inactivity - Lack of exercise and physical activity is also one of the common risk factors of Osteoporosis. In order for our bones to stay strong and healthy, they should often be used. Unfortunately, it’s common for us to live a sedentary life when we reach adulthood. That’s why if you will notice, most seniors tend to have weaker bones and muscles.
  • Excessive alcohol drinking - Several studies revealed that excessive alcohol drinking greatly contributes to an increased risk of Osteoporosis and other musculoskeletal disorders.
  • Cigarette smoking - Aside from alcohol drinking, habitual smoking is also said to increase one’s risk of Osteoporosis. This is supported by an article wherein it stated that smoking can affect how your bones heal from injuries and fractures.
  • Hormonal imbalance - Some hormonal imbalances can affect how the bones develop. Women who have low levels of estrogen or men who have low levels of testosterone will most likely have Osteoporosis. Other than that, excessive thyroid hormone can also affect bone health. Talk to your doctor if you have an existing hormonal imbalance that affects your bone density.
  • Medications - Medications like Corticosteroids, anti-epileptic, and proton pump inhibitors may increase one’s risk of Osteoporosis, especially if taken for long periods.
Diagnosing Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis does not show symptoms until it worsens, that’s why it’s important to get tested for Osteoporosis when you reach your 50s or 60s, especially if you are a woman. Though it’s a lot less common for men to get Osteoporosis, continuous monitoring, and regular check-up is still advised.

Osteoporosis Treatment

Once you are diagnosed with Osteoporosis, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes and some medications depending on how severe your bone loss is.

Some lifestyle changes may include:

  • Regular exercise
  • Avoiding alcoholic drinks
  • Refraining from smoking
  • Healthy diet

If you have severe bone density loss and that you have a high risk of bone fractures,  lifestyle changes may not be enough to treat the disease. Therefore, your doctor may prescribe certain medications that may help slow down bone loss or rebuild bones that you lost.

These medications include

  1. Bisphosphonates - This is a primary medication for Osteoporosis and can be taken by mouth or through IV. Bisphosphonates may be taken once a week or once a month depending on the doctor’s prescription. Bisphosphonates that are taken through IV may be done once or twice a year.
  2. Raloxifene - This can be a useful treatment for Osteoporosis, spinal fractures, heart disease, or breast cancer. However, Raloxifene may cause blood clots in the leg and lung veins for some people.
  3. Denosumab - This keeps Osteoporosis from progressing by increasing bone density. Denosumab is usually taken through an injection every six months. Unfortunately, this medication may not be suitable for immunocompromised patients.
  4. Teriparatide - Teriparatide is made based on the composition of parathyroid medications and it helps lower the risk of fractures in people with Osteoporosis. This is usually taken through injection.
  5. Estrogen/Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) - One of the most common medicines used for Osteoporosis, this is suitable for women aged 50 - 60.
  6. Romosuzomab - This medicine is helpful in increasing bone density, but may not be suitable for patients with heart diseases.
Tips to Prevent Osteoporosis

It is better to prevent Osteoporosis before it even starts. Experts recommend getting checked regularly to catch early signs of Osteoporosis and treat them before it gets worse.  Also, below are several tips you should know to prevent Osteoporosis:

  • Eat a healthy diet - Focus on foods that are high in calcium and vitamin D as these are essential for your bone health. Milk, green vegetables, fish, and grains are foods rich in calcium. Taking vitamin D supplements is also a good option, but it is important to talk to your doctor first before taking any supplements.
  • Stay physically active - Strength-training exercises are a good type of exercise to maintain bone health. If you are just starting to work out, start off with walking, brisk walking, jogging, or dancing.
  • Quit smoking - Smoking is one of the things that increase your risk of Osteoporosis. If you need help refraining from smoking, click here.
  • Avoid excessive alcohol - Limit or stop excessive alcohol drinking as this will weaken your bones.

Final Word

Osteoporosis is one of the most common musculoskeletal diseases among older adults. Though there are treatments available to stop its progress and to rebuild lost bone density, it is still better to prevent the disease before it starts. Follow the tips mentioned above to maintain strong, dense, and healthy bones.

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